Solgar Natural Source Vitamin E 1000 IU (671mg) per Capsule. As d-alpha tocopherol, plus mixed tocopherols. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL bad cholesterol) cholesterol, from damage. Severe Vitamin E deficiencies are rare. People with a genetic defect in a vitamin E transfer protein called thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) have severe vitamin E deficiency, characterized by low blood and tissue levels of vitamin E and progressive nerve abnormalities. 50 Softgels
Which form of Vitamin E is best?
The names of all types of vitamin E begin with either d or dl, which refer to differences in chemical structure. The d form is natural (also known as RRR-alpha tocopherol) and dl is synthetic (more correctly known as all-rac-alpha tocopherol). The natural form is more active and better absorbed. Little is known about how the unnatural l portion of the synthetic dl form affects the body, though no clear toxicity has been discovered.
In theory, when a vitamin E supplement is labelled 400 IU it should have the same level of activity regardless of its source. This is purportedly achieved by using more synthetic vitamin E to reach the same potency as a lesser amount of natural vitamin E. For example, 100 IU of vitamin E requires about 67 mg of the natural form but closer to 100 mg of the synthetic. However, a recent review of the scientific evidence suggests that natural vitamin E probably has greater activity in the body than indicated on the label.7 Natural vitamin E may be as much as twice as bio-available as synthetic vitamin E, not 1.36 times as is generally accepted.8 Many doctors advise people to use only the natural, the d form, of vitamin E.
After the d or dl designation, often the Greek letter alpha appears, which also describes the structure. Synthetic dl vitamin E is found only in the alpha formals in dl-alpha tocopherol. Natural vitamin E may be found either as alpha as in d-alpha tocopherol or in combination with beta, gamma, and delta, labelled mixed as in mixed natural tocopherols.
Little is known about the importance of the beta and delta forms of vitamin E, but a debate has arisen concerning gamma tocopherol. In a test tube study, gamma tocopherol was found to be more effective than alpha tocopherol in protecting against certain specific types of oxidative damage. In addition, some research has shown that supplementation with large amounts of alpha tocopherol (such as 1,200 IU per day) increases the breakdown, and decreases blood levels, of gamma tocopherol. Human trials with vitamin E have almost always been done with the alpha (not gamma) form. Historically the synthetic dl form was used in most trials, but some trials are now using the natural form. The issue of alpha vs. gamma form requires more research before it can be fully understood.
Almost all vitamin E research shows that, when positive results are obtained, hundreds of units per day are required an amount easily obtained with supplements but impossible with food. Therefore, switching to food sources, as suggested by some researchers, is impractical. On the other hand, the vitamin E occurring naturally in food contains gamma tocopherol and other tocopherols. Thus, it possibly may turn out to be more effective than the vitamin E taken in supplement form. Additional research is needed in this area.
Vitamin E forms are listed as either plain tocopherol or tocopheryl followed by the name of what is attached to it, as in tocopheryl acetate. The two forms are not greatly different. However, plain tocopherol may be absorbed a little better, while tocopheryl attached forms have a slightly better shelf life. Both forms are active when taken by mouth. However, the skin utilizes the tocopheryl forms very slowly, so those planning to apply vitamin E to the skin should buy plain tocopherol. In health food stores, the most common forms of vitamin E are d-alpha tocopherol and d-alpha tocopheryl acetate or succinate. Both of these d (natural) alpha forms are frequently recommended by doctors. Although the succinate form is slightly weaker than the acetate form, more milligrams of the succinate form are added to supplements to compensate for this small difference in potency. Therefore, 400 IU of either form should have equivalent potency.
How much is usually taken? The recommended dietary allowance for vitamin E is low, just 15 mg or approximately 22 International Units (IU) per day. The most commonly recommended amount of supplemental vitamin E for adults is 400 to 800 IU per day. However, some leading researchers suggest taking only 100 to 200 IU per day, since trials that have explored the long-term effects of different supplemental levels suggest no further benefit beyond that amount. In addition, research reporting positive effects with 400 to 800 IU per day has not investigated the effects of lower intakes. For tardive dyskinesia, the best results have been achieved from 1,600 IU per day, a large amount that should be supervised by a healthcare practitioner.
Are there any side effects or interactions? Vitamin E toxicity is very rare and supplements are widely considered to be safe. The National Academy of Sciences has established the daily tolerable upper intake level for adults to be 1,000 mg of vitamin E, which is equivalent to 1,500 IU of natural vitamin E or 1,100 IU of synthetic vitamin E. In a double-blind study of healthy elderly people, supplementation with 200 IU of vitamin E per day for 15 months had no effect in the incidence of respiratory infections, but increased the severity of those infections that did occur. For elderly individuals, the risks and benefits of taking this vitamin should be assessed with the help of a doctor or nutritionist. In contrast to trials suggesting vitamin E improves glucose tolerance in people with diabetes, one trial reported that 600 IU per day of vitamin E led to impairment in glucose tolerance in obese people with diabetes. The reason for the discrepancy between reports is not known. In a double-blind study of people with established heart disease or diabetes, participants who took 400 IU of vitamin E per day for an average of 4.5 years developed heart failure significantly more often than did those taking a placebo.
Hospitalizations for heart failure occurred in 5.8% of those in the vitamin E group, compared with 4.2% of those in the placebo group, a 38.1% increase. Considering that some other studies have shown a beneficial effect of vitamin E against heart disease, the results of this study are difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, individuals with heart disease or diabetes should consult their doctor before taking vitamin E. A review of 19 clinical trials of vitamin E supplementation concluded that long-term use of large amounts of vitamin E (400 IU per day or more) was associated with a small (4%) but statistically significant increase in risk of death. Long-term use of less than 400 IU per day was associated with a small and statistically non-significant reduction in death rates. This research has been criticized because many of the studies on which it was based used a combination of nutritional supplements, not just vitamin E.
For example, the adverse effects reported in some of the studies may have been due to the use of large amounts of zinc or synthetic beta-carotene, and may have had nothing to do with vitamin E. It is also possible that long-term use of large amounts of pure alpha-tocopherol may lead to a deficiency of gamma-tocopherol, with potential negative consequences. For that reason, some doctors recommend that people who need to take large amounts of vitamin E take at least part of it in the form of mixed tocopherols.
Patients on kidney dialysis who are given injections of iron frequently experience oxidative stress. This is because iron is a pro-oxidant, meaning that it interacts with oxygen molecules in ways that may damage tissues. These adverse effects of iron therapy may be counteracted by supplementation with vitamin E. A diet high in unsaturated fat increases vitamin E requirements. Vitamin E and selenium work together to protect fat-soluble parts of the body.
Low vitamin E status has been associated with an increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis and major depression. Women with preeclampsia have been found to have lower blood levels of vitamin E than women without the condition. Very old people with type 2 diabetes have shown a significant age-related decline in blood levels of vitamin E, irrespective of their dietary intake.
Each softgel Capsule provides: Vitamin E 671mg or 1000IU from d-alpha tocopherol. Softgel Capsule shell - gelatin (Bovine), vegetable glycerin (from palm kernel oil and coconut oil). Bulking agents: Vegetable oil, Safflower oil. Mixed tocopherols 44.5mg. Free of Gluten, Wheat, Dairy, Yeast, Preservatives, Sweetners, Artificial Flavours or colours.
As a food supplement, Adults, 1 softgel Capsule daily, preferably at mealtimes, or as directed by a healthcare practitioner. Do not exceed directions for use.
Keep out of reach of Children. Do not exceed directions for use. In all cases of illness, seek professional help before self prescribing.